CH4 (Methane) GAS
Methane (US: /ˈmɛθeɪn/; UK: /ˈmiːθeɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural gas. The relative abundance of methane on Earth makes it an economically attractive fuel, although capturing and storing it poses technical challenges due to its gaseous state under normal conditions for temperature and pressure.
Naturally occurring methane is found both below ground and under the seafloor, and is formed by both geological and biological processes. The largest reservoir of methane is under the seafloor in the form of methane clathrates. When methane reaches the surface and the atmosphere, it is known as atmospheric methane. The Earth’s atmospheric methane concentration has increased by about 150% since 1750, and it accounts for 20% of the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed greenhouse gases. Methane has also been detected on other planets, including Mars, which has implications for astrobiology research.
Methane is a tetrahedral molecule with four equivalent C–H bonds. Its electronic structure is described by four bonding molecular orbitals (MOs) resulting from the overlap of the valence orbitals on C and H. The lowest-energy MO is the result of the overlap of the 2s orbital on carbon with the in-phase combination of the 1s orbitals on the four hydrogen atoms. Above this energy level is a triply degenerate set of MOs that involve overlap of the 2p orbitals on carbon with various linear combinations of the 1s orbitals on hydrogen. The resulting “three-over-one” bonding scheme is consistent with photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.
At room temperature and standard pressure, methane is a colorless, odorless gas. The familiar smell of natural gas as used in homes is achieved by the addition of an odorant, usually blends containing tert-butylthiol, as a safety measure. Methane has a boiling point of −161.5 °C at a pressure of one atmosphere. As a gas, it is flammable over a range of concentrations (5.4–17%) in air at standard pressure.
Solid methane exists in several modifications. Presently nine are known. Cooling methane at normal pressure results in the formation of methane I. This substance crystallizes in the cubic system (space group Fm3m). The positions of the hydrogen atoms are not fixed in methane I, i.e. methane molecules may rotate freely. Therefore, it is a plastic crystal.
Methane is nontoxic, yet it is extremely flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below about 16% by displacement, as most people can tolerate a reduction from 21% to 16% without ill effects. The concentration of methane at which asphyxiation risk becomes significant is much higher than the 5–15% concentration in a flammable or explosive mixture. Methane off-gas can penetrate the interiors of buildings near landfills and expose occupants to significant levels of methane. Some buildings have specially engineered recovery systems below their basements to actively capture this gas and vent it away from the building.
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OUR COMPREHENSIVE SAFETY RANGE
EX Solutio Engineering has a comprehensive range of South African Manufactured Safety Products, designed and developed for our harsh mining industry, ensuring we outperform our competitors each time, plus saving you the client money.
- Underground mine audits
- System audits
- Methane Detectors
- Toxic Gasses detection
- Turnkey Early warning systems
- Fire Detection Systems
- Fire Alarms
- Emergency Repairs
- SLA Agreements
- Servicing the whole of Southern Africa
- Supplier of calibration gasses
Is our equipment LOOP certified?
Yes, our products are loop certified. Each system installed requires their own respective certification pertaining to the application and also the combination of OEM and 3rd party equipment. EX Solutio can asssit with obtaining the LOOP certification.
What certification does EX Solutio hold?
We are a Mark Scheme holder for I.S. Specific equipment for hazardous areas in the mining industry, for example methane and coal dust environments.
Is our equipment patented?
Yes, all our designs are patented and consists of advanced technology designed and manufactured in-house by EX Solutio.
Can our products be used with other 3rd party systems?
Yes, each product functions individually on it’s own, or as part of a complete system either I.S. or non I.S.
Take note, adding our products to third party LOOP certified systems could require recertification on the LOOP certificate.